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Year : 2022  |  Volume : 11  |  Issue : 4  |  Page : 97-101

Premature coronary artery disease in young Indians: The hormonal triad of insulin, testosterone, and vitamin D

Department of Cardiology, Sri Jayadeva Institute of Cardiovascular Sciences and Research, Bengaluru, Karnataka, India

Correspondence Address:
MD, DM Laxmi H Shetty
Department of Cardiology, Sri Jayadeva Institute of Cardiovascular Sciences and Research, Bengaluru - 560 069, Karnataka
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Source of Support: None, Conflict of Interest: None

DOI: 10.4103/jcpc.jcpc_24_22

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Background: Cardiovascular diseases (CVDs) are on the rise globally. India, in spite of housing the youngest population, has now been termed the CVD capital of the world. Several independent studies have shown association between low levels of Vitamin D, insulin resistance, and low testosterone levels and coronary artery disease (CAD). However, the presence of this hormonal triad in premature CAD patients in India has not been studied. Therefore, we aimed to explore the role of this hormonal triad in CAD in young Indians. Methods: This was a prospective, case–control, study conducted at a tertiary care center in India. Premature CAD patients were enrolled as cases and healthy individuals were enrolled as controls. Demographic, behavioral, anthropometric and body composition, physiological, and biochemical parameters were recorded/assayed as per standard protocols. Results: A total of 644 individuals were enrolled in the study. Among them, 344 belonged to the case group and 300 to the control group. The mean age did not differ significantly between cases (32.1 ± 5.6 years) and controls (32.5 ± 5.0 years). Significantly lower levels of Vitamin D levels (P = 0.01) and serum insulin (P < 0.001) were observed in the case group compared to the control group. In males, no significant difference was observed between the two groups in terms of serum testosterone level (P = 0.075). Conclusion: Higher fasting insulin levels may be a reliable indicator of premature CAD. Vitamin D levels may not reliably predict premature CAD because 70%–90% of Indians are deficient of Vitamin D. Testosterone levels in females, but not in males, may be a reliable predictor for the same. However, larger studies are required to validate these findings.

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