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ORIGINAL ARTICLE
Year : 2021  |  Volume : 10  |  Issue : 2  |  Page : 48-53

A study of spectrum of rheumatic heart disease in children at a tertiary care hospital in Western India


1 Department of Cardiology, U. N. Mehta Institute of Cardiology and Research Centre, Civil Hospital Campus, Ahmedabad, Gujarat, India
2 Department of Research, U. N. Mehta Institute of Cardiology and Research Centre, Civil Hospital Campus, Ahmedabad, Gujarat, India

Correspondence Address:
Dr. Pooja Vyas
Department of Cardiology, U. N. Mehta Institute of Cardiology and Research Centre, Civil Hospital Campus, Asarwa, Ahmedabad - 380 016, Gujarat
India
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Source of Support: None, Conflict of Interest: None


DOI: 10.4103/jcpc.jcpc_49_20

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Context: Rheumatic heart disease (RHD) predominantly affects adults. However, in developing countries like India, it is the most common acquired heart disease in children. The prevalence of RHD also varies from the region to region in the same country due to the differences in educational, economic, and social status as well as health-care facilities of the region. Aim: The aim of the study is to establish and discuss the spectrum of RHD in children from Western India and to explore the relationship between severity of valvular lesion by the age and sex of the children with RHD. Methods: Echocardiographic findings of children (N = 820) ≤18 years with RHD seen at our institute from January 2018 to December 2018 were retrospectively analyzed. RHD was screened by echocardiography. All the echocardiogram were analyzed for the pattern and severity of various valve lesions and associated abnormalities. Results: Eight hundred and twenty children had a diagnosis of RHD. Maximum patients [476 (57.1%)] were from the age group of 13–18 years without any gender difference (418 male and 402 female). Mitral regurgitation (MR) was the most common lesion found in 81.46% children. Aortic regurgitation (AR) was seen in 29.76%, mitral stenosis (MS) was found in 20.48%, tricuspid regurgitation was seen in 66.83%, and aortic stenosis (AS) was found in 0.73% children. AR was found more common in males as compared to females (P = 0.0004). Majority of patients (69.5%) had single mitral valve involvement. Four hundred and eight patients (49.8%) had severe MR, 122 patients (14.9%) had severe MS, 62 patients (7.6%) had severe aortic regurgitation, and 2 (0.2%) patients had severe AS at the time of first presentation. Pulmonary hypertension was found in 69% of children. Children with MS and AS were older than those without MS and AS (P = 0.0001). Conclusion: Majority of children had severe valvular lesion and pulmonary hypertension at the time of first presentation. RHD is the leading cause of heart failure in children with requirement of surgical/catheter intervention and long-term medical management.


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