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Year : 2017  |  Volume : 6  |  Issue : 3  |  Page : 90-98

Underutilization of aspirin in people living with human immunodeficiency virus at increased risk for acute myocardial infarction: Systematic review and meta-analysis

1 Department of Medicine, University of Toledo Medical Center, Toledo, OH, USA
2 Department of Mathematics and Statistics, University of Toledo, Toledo, OH, USA
3 Department of Education and Quality, Diplomat Specialty Pharmacy Incorporation, Flint, MI, USA

Correspondence Address:
Douglas Federman
Department of Medicine, Ruppert Health Center, Room 0012, 3000 Arlington Avenue, Toledo, OH 43614
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Source of Support: None, Conflict of Interest: None

DOI: 10.4103/JCPC.JCPC_13_17

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Context: With the increased availability of potent combination antiretroviral therapies, the life expectancy of people living with human immunodeficiency virus (PLHIV) has greatly increased. This rapid improvement in lifespan has served as a catalyst for a paradigm shift in human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) care. The focus of HIV care models has transitioned from the sole treatment of acute opportunistic infections to comprehensive management of chronic diseases, such as cardiovascular disease (CVD). Multiple studies have demonstrated that PLHIV are 50% more likely to develop acute myocardial infarction (AMI), compared to the general population. Cardiovascular risk prevention is becoming an essential component of the overarching HIV treatment plan. Aims: This meta-analysis aims to compare the rate of aspirin use for AMI prevention in indicated patients between PLHIV and general population. Methods: PubMed, EMBASE, Web of Science, Cochrane Library, CINAHL, and MEDLINE databases were used to identify observational cohort trials. Studies were assessed by two reviewers for inclusion criteria. Two separate random-effects meta-analyses' models were performed using the DerSimonian and Laird method. Heterogeneity was assessed using the I2 value. Meta-regression with study level variables was used to explore potential sources of heterogeneity. The funnel-plot-based trim-and-fill method was applied to detect and adjust for potential publication bias. Statistical tests were two-sided and P< 0.05 was considered statistically significant. Results: A total of 13 studies were included for analysis. In these trials, 30.4% of PLHIV with increased risk for coronary heart disease (CHD) used aspirin for AMI prevention, compared to 36.9% of patients at risk of CHD in the general population. Conclusions: The results of this meta-analysis provide evidence that aspirin is underutilized in both PLHIV and the general population across broad geographical zones. Aspirin use was found to be markedly lower in PLHIV compared to the general population. This is the first study to pool results from regional studies to assess disparities in aspirin use for AMI prevention between PLHIV and the general population across broad geographical zones.

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