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Year : 2017  |  Volume : 6  |  Issue : 3  |  Page : 104-108

A cross-sectional study on the risk factors for cardiovascular disease and risk profiling of adults in central India

1 Department of Community Medicine, Indira Gandhi Government Medical College, Nagpur, Maharashtra, India
2 Department of Community Medicine, Government Medical College, Yavatmal, Maharashtra, India

Correspondence Address:
Chaitanya Rangangouda Patil
Department of Community Medicine, Indira Gandhi Government Medical College, Nagpur - 440 018, Maharashtra
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Source of Support: None, Conflict of Interest: None

DOI: 10.4103/JCPC.JCPC_5_17

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Context: Cardiovascular disease (CVD) tops the list of the causes of noncommunicable disease mortality, followed by cancers, respiratory diseases, and diabetes. More than 75% of CVD deaths occur in low- and middle-income countries. Thus, estimation of the future CVD risk in this population becomes an important step. Aims: The aim is to study the prevalence of risk factors for CVD and to study the 10-year risk for fatal or nonfatal cardiovascular events. Subjects and Methods: A cross-sectional study was conducted at an urban health training center of a tertiary care hospital in Central India. Adults >30 years of age attending the outpatient department were recruited. Patients on long-term steroids, critically ill patients, and pregnant females were excluded from the study. Predesigned and pretested questionnaire was used to collect the data. For individuals above 40 years of age, the 10-year risk for cardiovascular events was estimated using the World Health Organization/International Society of Hypertension risk prediction charts. Results: A total of 243 participants (mean age 51.4 ± 12.2 years; female:male ratio 1.38:1) were included in the study. The prevalence of tobacco chewing (33.3%) and smoking (10.8%) was significantly higher among males compared with females (P < 0.001). The prevalence of hypertension, family history of CVD, overweight, and obesity was higher among females but did not attain statistical significance. The estimated 10-year risk of a cardiovascular event was <10%, 10%–<20%, 20%–<30%, 30%–<40%, and >40% in 72%, 17%, 7%, 2%, and 2% study participants, respectively. Conclusions: We found significantly higher prevalence of males consuming tobacco and smoking as compared to females. About 28% of the eligible study participants had a predicted 10-year cardiovascular risk of 10% or more in our study. This high proportion of elevated cardiovascular risk is a cause of concern and necessitates aggressive preventive efforts.

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