Journal of Clinical and Preventive Cardiology

IMAGE IN CARDIOLOGY
Year
: 2019  |  Volume : 8  |  Issue : 4  |  Page : 186--187

Self-Assessment Quiz


Vishnu Sharma Moleyar 
 1Department of Respiratory Medicine, AJ Institute of Medical Sciences, Mangalore, India

Correspondence Address:
Dr. Vishnu Sharma Moleyar
1Department of Respiratory Medicine, AJ Institute of Medical Sciences, Mangalore
India




How to cite this article:
Moleyar VS. Self-Assessment Quiz.J Clin Prev Cardiol 2019;8:186-187


How to cite this URL:
Moleyar VS. Self-Assessment Quiz. J Clin Prev Cardiol [serial online] 2019 [cited 2020 Feb 18 ];8:186-187
Available from: http://www.jcpconline.org/text.asp?2019/8/4/186/275163


Full Text



Question 1: What is the most likely diagnosis from the figures? [Figure 1], [Figure 2], [Figure 3]{Figure 1}{Figure 2}{Figure 3}

Answer: Chest X-ray shows permanent pacemaker with mitral annular calcification (MAC). Echocardiography image confirms MAC.

Mitral valve lies below the imaginary line passing from the right cardiophrenic angle to the inferior aspect of the left hilum in chest X-ray.[1] MAC is a degenerative process and is associated with cardiovascular diseases. MAC is associated with conduction defects, including atrioventricular block, bundle branch block, and intraventricular conduction delay. This is more so in patients with severe MAC.[2] MAC is also associated with symptomatic bradyarrhythmias which may require pacemaker implantation.[3] Bradyarrhythmia is due to infiltration of calcium into the conduction system.

Question 2: Which of the following is NOT a risk factor for development of MAC?

Chronic renal failureHypercholesterolemiaChronic liver diseaseSystemic hypertensionTurbulent blood flow.

Answer: C. Chronic liver disease does not increase the risk of development of MAC.

MAC is accelerated by advanced age, turbulent blood flow across mitral valve (as in systemic hypertension, aortic stenosis, hypertrophic cardiomyopathy), hypercholesterolemia, diabetes mellitus, chronic renal failure with secondary hyperparathyroidism, conditions that increase annular stress (e.g. mitral valve prolapse), and genetic abnormalities of the fibrous skeleton[4] (Marfan's and Hurler syndromes). Any patient diagnosed to have MAC should be evaluated for the presence of above predisposing conditions.

Question 3: Which of the following complication is NOT a complication of MAC?

Myocardial infarctionMitral regurgitationMitral stenosisArrhythmiasInfective endocarditis.

Answer: A. Myocardial infarction, stroke, and atherosclerosis are associated with MAC but probably not directly caused by it.[5] All the other can occur as a complication of MAC. MAC is an inflammatory process which serves as a nidus for infective endocarditis.

Question 4: Which of the following is NOT a differential diagnosis for MAC?

Atrial myxomaBenign cardiac tumorsThrombusVegetations due to infective endocarditisRupture of chordae tendineae.

Answer: E. On echocardiography, MAC is identified as an echo-dense band or mass in the atrioventricular groove. MAC is seen throughout systole and diastole and can be distinguished separately from the posterior mitral valve leaflet.[6] Hence, MAC can be easily distinguished form ruptured chordae tendineae by echocardiography.

Question 5. Which is a WRONG statement regarding MAC?

MAC is most often an incidental findingMAC is associated with an increased risk of incident cardiovascular diseaseMAC should treated surgicallyMAC commonly affects posterior annulusComputed tomography is useful to estimate the extent and location of MAC.

Answer: C. Surgical treatment is not indicated for uncomplicated MAC.[7] There is no specific treatment for MAC. Underlying predisposing factors should be identified and treated. MAC may produce significant mitral stenosis and in that case mitral valve replacement (MVR) may be needed.[8] However, MVR in a patient with severe MAC is technically very challenging and is associated with high likelihood of unfavorable surgical outcomes. Hence, surgical correction is generally not recommended and most surgeons avoid it. Recently, percutaneous mitral valve implantation has been tried for treating MAC-related mitral valve dysfunction.[8] The results have been mixed and more work is currently underway.

Financial support and sponsorship

Nil.

Conflicts of interest

There are no conflicts of interest.

References

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